A wellhead is a part of an equipment that is installed at the surface of a gas or oil well. This gives a structural and pressure containing interface that is used for drilling as well as the production machine. This object is usually installed where the casings are terminated by hanging those casings using a hanger and seals.
A Wellhead consists the casing head, spools, hangers, pack-off seals, test plugs, tubing head, mudline suspension system, and so much more. Wellheads will normally have a diameter of 2, 3, 5, 10 or 15 inches where the pressure ratings would be about 2000 to 15000 psi. But what’s the purpose of this equipment?
What is the Wellhead Used For?
The oil and gas wellhead is used for hanging or suspending the casing using hanger or seals. It also provides pressure seal and strength to hold the hanging weight of the casings. A Wellhead also provides a way for a tubing suspension and a BOP is attached if drilling is needed. While the Christmas tree is attached to the Wellhead during the production of hydrocarbon streams. And every access due to workover operations is done through a Wellhead.
The Wellhead and Christmas Tree: What’s the Difference?
A Christmas tree is a combination of valves, spools, as well as fittings that are used for oil wells, water injection or disposal wells, injection well, condensate well, and so much more. It is known by its name because it resembles a decorated Christmas tree. There are so many instances that Christmas tree and Wellhead are interchanged. Many people think that these two are the same.
However, Christmas Tree and Wellhead are two different parts of a machine. For someone to be able to use a Christmas tree, it should be attached to the Wellhead. But on the other hand, a Wellhead can definitely work on its own especially during a drilling operation. Another example is when producing surface wells that will just be using pump jacks or nodding donkeys. This process will not require a Christmas tree and just the Wellhead since it will not use any pressure.
How to Classify a Wellhead
A Wellhead is classified depending on the well location, and also the Wellhead Design. If it is based on the location, there are three types of a Wellhead; the Wellhead for land drilling, the surface location offshore, as well as the Subsea Wellhead. If the classification is based on the Wellhead design, then there are two options. A Spool wellhead system, and a unitized wellhead system.
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